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JEL Classification Codes

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작성자 KODISA 댓글 0건 조회 1,095회 작성일 20-05-14 11:50

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JEL Classification Codes ome aGeneral Categories


A. General Economics and Teaching
 
A1General Economics
A10General
A11Role of Economics • Role of Economists • Market for Economists
A12Relation of Economics to Other Disciplines
A13Relation of Economics to Social Values
A14Sociology of Economics
A19Other
 
A2Economic Education and Teaching of Economics
A20General
A21Pre-college
A22Undergraduate
A23Graduate
A29Other
 
A3Collective Works
A30General
A31Collected Writings of Individuals
A32Collective Volumes
A33Handbooks
A39Other

B. History of Economic Thought, Methodology, and Heterodox Approaches
 
B00General
 
B1History of Economic Thought through 1925
B10General
B11Preclassical (Ancient, Medieval, Mercantilist, Physiocratic)
B12Classical (includes Adam Smith)
B13Neoclassical through 1925 (Austrian, Marshallian, Walrasian, Wicksellian)
B14Socialist • Marxist
B15Historical • Institutional • Evolutionary
B16Quantitative and Mathematical
B17International Trade and Finance
B19Other
 
B2History of Economic Thought since 1925
B20General
B21Microeconomics
B22Macroeconomics
B23Econometrics • Quantitative and Mathematical Studies
B24Socialist • Marxist • Sraffian
B25Historical • Institutional • Evolutionary • Austrian • Stockholm School
B26Financial Economics
B27International Trade and Finance
B29Other
 
B3History of Economic Thought: Individuals
B30General
B31Individuals
B32Obituaries
 
B4Economic Methodology
B40General
B41Economic Methodology
B49Other
 
B5Current Heterodox Approaches
B50General
B51Socialist • Marxian • Sraffian
B52Historical • Institutional • Evolutionary • Modern Monetary Theory
B53Austrian
B54Feminist Economics
B55Social Economics
B59Other

C. Mathematical and Quantitative Methods
 
C00General
C01Econometrics
C02Mathematical Methods
 
C1Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General
C10General
C11Bayesian Analysis: General
C12Hypothesis Testing: General
C13Estimation: General
C14Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
C15Statistical Simulation Methods: General
C18Methodological Issues: General
C19Other
 
C2Single Equation Models • Single Variables
C20General
C21Cross-Sectional Models • Spatial Models • Treatment Effect Models • Quantile Regressions
C22Time-Series Models • Dynamic Quantile Regressions • Dynamic Treatment Effect Models • Diffusion Processes
C23Panel Data Models • Spatio-temporal Models
C24Truncated and Censored Models • Switching Regression Models • Threshold Regression Models
C25Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models • Discrete Regressors • Proportions • Probabilities
C26Instrumental Variables (IV) Estimation
C29Other
 
C3Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models • Multiple Variables
C30General
C31Cross-Sectional Models • Spatial Models • Treatment Effect Models • Quantile Regressions • Social Interaction Models
C32Time-Series Models • Dynamic Quantile Regressions • Dynamic Treatment Effect Models • Diffusion Processes • State Space Models
C33Panel Data Models • Spatio-temporal Models
C34Truncated and Censored Models • Switching Regression Models
C35Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models • Discrete Regressors • Proportions
C36Instrumental Variables (IV) Estimation
C38Classification Methods • Cluster Analysis • Principal Components • Factor Models
C39Other
 
C4Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics
C40General
C41Duration Analysis • Optimal Timing Strategies
C43Index Numbers and Aggregation
C44Operations Research • Statistical Decision Theory
C45Neural Networks and Related Topics
C46Specific Distributions • Specific Statistics
C49Other
 
C5Econometric Modeling
C50General
C51Model Construction and Estimation
C52Model Evaluation, Validation, and Selection
C53Forecasting and Prediction Methods • Simulation Methods
C54Quantitative Policy Modeling
C55Large Data Sets: Modeling and Analysis
C57Econometrics of Games and Auctions
C58Financial Econometrics
C59Other
 
C6Mathematical Methods • Programming Models • Mathematical and Simulation Modeling
C60General
C61Optimization Techniques • Programming Models • Dynamic Analysis
C62Existence and Stability Conditions of Equilibrium
C63Computational Techniques • Simulation Modeling
C65Miscellaneous Mathematical Tools
C67Input–Output Models
C68Computable General Equilibrium Models
C69Other
 
C7Game Theory and Bargaining Theory
C70General
C71Cooperative Games
C72Noncooperative Games
C73Stochastic and Dynamic Games • Evolutionary Games • Repeated Games
C78Bargaining Theory • Matching Theory
C79Other
 
C8Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology • Computer Programs
C80General
C81Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Microeconomic Data • Data Access
C82Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Macroeconomic Data • Data Access
C83Survey Methods • Sampling Methods
C87Econometric Software
C88Other Computer Software
C89Other
 
C9Design of Experiments
C90General
C91Laboratory, Individual Behavior
C92Laboratory, Group Behavior
C93Field Experiments
C99Other

D. Microeconomics
 
D00General
D01Microeconomic Behavior: Underlying Principles
D02Institutions: Design, Formation, Operations, and Impact
D04Microeconomic Policy: Formulation, Implementation, and Evaluation
 
D1Household Behavior and Family Economics
D10General
D11Consumer Economics: Theory
D12Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
D13Household Production and Intrahousehold Allocation
D14Household Saving • Personal Finance
D15Intertemporal Household Choice • Life Cycle Models and Saving
D16Collaborative Consumption
D18Consumer Protection
D19Other
 
D2Production and Organizations
D20General
D21Firm Behavior: Theory
D22Firm Behavior: Empirical Analysis
D23Organizational Behavior • Transaction Costs • Property Rights
D24Production • Cost • Capital • Capital, Total Factor, and Multifactor Productivity • Capacity
D25Intertemporal Firm Choice: Investment, Capacity, and Financing
D26Crowd-Based Firms
D29Other
 
D3Distribution
D30General
D31Personal Income, Wealth, and Their Distributions
D33Factor Income Distribution
D39Other
 
D4Market Structure, Pricing, and Design
D40General
D41Perfect Competition
D42Monopoly
D43Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection
D44Auctions
D45Rationing • Licensing
D46Value Theory
D47Market Design
D49Other
 
D5General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium
D50General
D51Exchange and Production Economies
D52Incomplete Markets
D53Financial Markets
D57Input–Output Tables and Analysis
D58Computable and Other Applied General Equilibrium Models
D59Other
 
D6Welfare Economics
D60General
D61Allocative Efficiency • Cost–Benefit Analysis
D62Externalities
D63Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
D64Altruism • Philanthropy • Intergenerational Transfers
D69Other
 
D7Analysis of Collective Decision-Making
D70General
D71Social Choice • Clubs • Committees • Associations
D72Political Processes: Rent-Seeking, Lobbying, Elections, Legislatures, and Voting Behavior
D73Bureaucracy • Administrative Processes in Public Organizations • Corruption
D74Conflict • Conflict Resolution • Alliances • Revolutions
D78Positive Analysis of Policy Formulation and Implementation
D79Other
 
D8Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty
D80General
D81Criteria for Decision-Making under Risk and Uncertainty
D82Asymmetric and Private Information • Mechanism Design
D83Search • Learning • Information and Knowledge • Communication • Belief • Unawareness
D84Expectations • Speculations
D85Network Formation and Analysis: Theory
D86Economics of Contract: Theory
D87Neuroeconomics
D89Other
 
D9Micro-Based Behavioral Economics
D90General
D91Role and Effects of Psychological, Emotional, Social, and Cognitive Factors on Decision Making

E. Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics
 
E00General
E01Measurement and Data on National Income and Product Accounts and Wealth • Environmental Accounts
E02Institutions and the Macroeconomy
 
E1General Aggregative Models
E10General
E11Marxian • Sraffian • Kaleckian
E12Keynes • Keynesian • Post-Keynesian • Modern Monetary Theory
E13Neoclassical
E14Austrian • Evolutionary • Institutional
E16Social Accounting Matrix
E17Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
E19Other
 
E2Consumption, Saving, Production, Investment, Labor Markets, and Informal Economy
E20General
E21Consumption • Saving • Wealth
E22Investment • Capital • Intangible Capital • Capacity
E23Production
E24Employment • Unemployment • Wages • Intergenerational Income Distribution • Aggregate Human Capital • Aggregate Labor Productivity
E25Aggregate Factor Income Distribution
E26Informal Economy • Underground Economy
E27Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
E29Other
 
E3Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles
E30General
E31Price Level • Inflation • Deflation
E32Business Fluctuations • Cycles
E37Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
E39Other
 
E4Money and Interest Rates
E40General
E41Demand for Money
E42Monetary Systems • Standards • Regimes • Government and the Monetary System • Payment Systems
E43Interest Rates: Determination, Term Structure, and Effects
E44Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
E47Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
E49Other
 
E5Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit
E50General
E51Money Supply • Credit • Money Multipliers
E52Monetary Policy
E58Central Banks and Their Policies
E59Other
 
E6Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook
E60General
E61Policy Objectives • Policy Designs and Consistency • Policy Coordination
E62Fiscal Policy
E63Comparative or Joint Analysis of Fiscal and Monetary Policy • Stabilization • Treasury Policy
E64Incomes Policy • Price Policy
E65Studies of Particular Policy Episodes
E66General Outlook and Conditions
E69Other
 
E7Macro-Based Behavioral Economics
E70General
E71Role and Effects of Psychological, Emotional, Social, and Cognitive Factors on the Macro Economy

F. International Economics
 
F00General
F01Global Outlook
F02International Economic Order and Integration
 
F1Trade
F10General
F11Neoclassical Models of Trade
F12Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies • Fragmentation
F13Trade Policy • International Trade Organizations
F14Empirical Studies of Trade
F15Economic Integration
F16Trade and Labor Market Interactions
F17Trade Forecasting and Simulation
F18Trade and Environment
F19Other
 
F2International Factor Movements and International Business
F20General
F21International Investment • Long-Term Capital Movements
F22International Migration
F23Multinational Firms • International Business
F24Remittances
F29Other
 
F3International Finance
F30General
F31Foreign Exchange
F32Current Account Adjustment • Short-Term Capital Movements
F33International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions
F34International Lending and Debt Problems
F35Foreign Aid
F36Financial Aspects of Economic Integration
F37International Finance Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
F38International Financial Policy: Financial Transactions Tax; Capital Controls
F39Other
 
F4Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance
F40General
F41Open Economy Macroeconomics
F42International Policy Coordination and Transmission
F43Economic Growth of Open Economies
F44International Business Cycles
F45Macroeconomic Issues of Monetary Unions
F47Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
F49Other
 
F5International Relations, National Security, and International Political Economy
F50General
F51International Conflicts • Negotiations • Sanctions
F52National Security • Economic Nationalism
F53International Agreements and Observance • International Organizations
F54Colonialism • Imperialism • Postcolonialism
F55International Institutional Arrangements
F59Other
 
F6Economic Impacts of Globalization
F60General
F61Microeconomic Impacts
F62Macroeconomic Impacts
F63Economic Development
F64Environment
F65Finance
F66Labor
F68Policy
F69Other

G. Financial Economics
 
G00General
G01Financial Crises
 
G1General Financial Markets
G10General
G11Portfolio Choice • Investment Decisions
G12Asset Pricing • Trading Volume • Bond Interest Rates
G13Contingent Pricing • Futures Pricing
G14Information and Market Efficiency • Event Studies • Insider Trading
G15International Financial Markets
G17Financial Forecasting and Simulation
G18Government Policy and Regulation
G19Other
 
G2Financial Institutions and Services
G20General
G21Banks • Depository Institutions • Micro Finance Institutions • Mortgages
G22Insurance • Insurance Companies • Actuarial Studies
G23Non-bank Financial Institutions • Financial Instruments • Institutional Investors
G24Investment Banking • Venture Capital • Brokerage • Ratings and Ratings Agencies
G28Government Policy and Regulation
G29Other
 
G3Corporate Finance and Governance
G30General
G31Capital Budgeting • Fixed Investment and Inventory Studies • Capacity
G32Financing Policy • Financial Risk and Risk Management • Capital and Ownership Structure • Value of Firms • Goodwill
G33Bankruptcy • Liquidation
G34Mergers • Acquisitions • Restructuring • Corporate Governance
G35Payout Policy
G38Government Policy and Regulation
G39Other
 
G4Behavioral Finance
G40General
G41Role and Effects of Psychological, Emotional, Social, and Cognitive Factors on Decision Making in Financial Markets
 
G5Household Finance
G50General
G51Household Saving, Borrowing, Debt, and Wealth
G52Insurance
G53Financial Literacy
G59Other

H. Public Economics
 
H00General
 
H1Structure and Scope of Government
H10General
H11Structure, Scope, and Performance of Government
H12Crisis Management
H13Economics of Eminent Domain • Expropriation • Nationalization
H19Other
 
H2Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue
H20General
H21Efficiency • Optimal Taxation
H22Incidence
H23Externalities • Redistributive Effects • Environmental Taxes and Subsidies
H24Personal Income and Other Nonbusiness Taxes and Subsidies
H25Business Taxes and Subsidies
H26Tax Evasion and Avoidance
H27Other Sources of Revenue
H29Other
 
H3Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents
H30General
H31Household
H32Firm
H39Other
 
H4Publicly Provided Goods
H40General
H41Public Goods
H42Publicly Provided Private Goods
H43Project Evaluation • Social Discount Rate
H44Publicly Provided Goods: Mixed Markets
H49Other
 
H5National Government Expenditures and Related Policies
H50General
H51Government Expenditures and Health
H52Government Expenditures and Education
H53Government Expenditures and Welfare Programs
H54Infrastructures • Other Public Investment and Capital Stock
H55Social Security and Public Pensions
H56National Security and War
H57Procurement
H59Other
 
H6National Budget, Deficit, and Debt
H60General
H61Budget • Budget Systems
H62Deficit • Surplus
H63Debt • Debt Management • Sovereign Debt
H68Forecasts of Budgets, Deficits, and Debt
H69Other
 
H7State and Local Government • Intergovernmental Relations
H70General
H71State and Local Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue
H72State and Local Budget and Expenditures
H73Interjurisdictional Differentials and Their Effects
H74State and Local Borrowing
H75State and Local Government: Health • Education • Welfare • Public Pensions
H76State and Local Government: Other Expenditure Categories
H77Intergovernmental Relations • Federalism • Secession
H79Other
 
H8Miscellaneous Issues
H80General
H81Governmental Loans • Loan Guarantees • Credits • Grants • Bailouts
H82Governmental Property
H83Public Administration • Public Sector Accounting and Audits
H84Disaster Aid
H87International Fiscal Issues • International Public Goods
H89Other

I. Health, Education, and Welfare
 
I00General
 
I1Health
I10General
I11Analysis of Health Care Markets
I12Health Behavior
I13Health Insurance, Public and Private
I14Health and Inequality
I15Health and Economic Development
I18Government Policy • Regulation • Public Health
I19Other
 
I2Education and Research Institutions
I20General
I21Analysis of Education
I22Educational Finance • Financial Aid
I23Higher Education • Research Institutions
I24Education and Inequality
I25Education and Economic Development
I26Returns to Education
I28Government Policy
I29Other
 
I3Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty
I30General
I31General Welfare, Well-Being
I32Measurement and Analysis of Poverty
I38Government Policy • Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs
I39Other

J. Labor and Demographic Economics
 
J00General
J01Labor Economics: General
J08Labor Economics Policies
 
J1Demographic Economics
J10General
J11Demographic Trends, Macroeconomic Effects, and Forecasts
J12Marriage • Marital Dissolution • Family Structure • Domestic Abuse
J13Fertility • Family Planning • Child Care • Children • Youth
J14Economics of the Elderly • Economics of the Handicapped • Non-Labor Market Discrimination
J15Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants • Non-labor Discrimination
J16Economics of Gender • Non-labor Discrimination
J17Value of Life • Forgone Income
J18Public Policy
J19Other
 
J2Demand and Supply of Labor
J20General
J21Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
J22Time Allocation and Labor Supply
J23Labor Demand
J24Human Capital • Skills • Occupational Choice • Labor Productivity
J26Retirement • Retirement Policies
J28Safety • Job Satisfaction • Related Public Policy
J29Other
 
J3Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs
J30General
J31Wage Level and Structure • Wage Differentials
J32Nonwage Labor Costs and Benefits • Retirement Plans • Private Pensions
J33Compensation Packages • Payment Methods
J38Public Policy
J39Other
 
J4Particular Labor Markets
J40General
J41Labor Contracts
J42Monopsony • Segmented Labor Markets
J43Agricultural Labor Markets
J44Professional Labor Markets • Occupational Licensing
J45Public Sector Labor Markets
J46Informal Labor Markets
J47Coercive Labor Markets
J48Public Policy
J49Other
 
J5Labor–Management Relations, Trade Unions, and Collective Bargaining
J50General
J51Trade Unions: Objectives, Structure, and Effects
J52Dispute Resolution: Strikes, Arbitration, and Mediation • Collective Bargaining
J53Labor–Management Relations • Industrial Jurisprudence
J54Producer Cooperatives • Labor Managed Firms • Employee Ownership
J58Public Policy
J59Other
 
J6Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers
J60General
J61Geographic Labor Mobility • Immigrant Workers
J62Job, Occupational, and Intergenerational Mobility
J63Turnover • Vacancies • Layoffs
J64Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search
J65Unemployment Insurance • Severance Pay • Plant Closings
J68Public Policy
J69Other
 
J7Labor Discrimination
J70General
J71Discrimination
J78Public Policy
J79Other
 
J8Labor Standards: National and International
J80General
J81Working Conditions
J82Labor Force Composition
J83Workers' Rights
J88Public Policy
J89Other

K. Law and Economics
 
K00General
 
K1Basic Areas of Law
K10General
K11Property Law
K12Contract Law
K13Tort Law and Product Liability • Forensic Economics
K14Criminal Law
K15Civil Law • Common Law
K16Election Law
K19Other
 
K2Regulation and Business Law
K20General
K21Antitrust Law
K22Business and Securities Law
K23Regulated Industries and Administrative Law
K24Cyber Law
K25Real Estate Law
K29Other
 
K3Other Substantive Areas of Law
K30General
K31Labor Law
K32Energy, Environmental, Health, and Safety Law
K33International Law
K34Tax Law
K35Personal Bankruptcy Law
K36Family and Personal Law
K37Immigration Law
K38Human Rights Law • Gender Law
K39Other
 
K4Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior
K40General
K41Litigation Process
K42Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law
K49Other

L. Industrial Organization
 
L00General
 
L1Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance
L10General
L11Production, Pricing, and Market Structure • Size Distribution of Firms
L12Monopoly • Monopolization Strategies
L13Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets
L14Transactional Relationships • Contracts and Reputation • Networks
L15Information and Product Quality • Standardization and Compatibility
L16Industrial Organization and Macroeconomics: Industrial Structure and Structural Change • Industrial Price Indices
L17Open Source Products and Markets
L19Other
 
L2Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior
L20General
L21Business Objectives of the Firm
L22Firm Organization and Market Structure
L23Organization of Production
L24Contracting Out • Joint Ventures • Technology Licensing
L25Firm Performance: Size, Diversification, and Scope
L26Entrepreneurship
L29Other
 
L3Nonprofit Organizations and Public Enterprise
L30General
L31Nonprofit Institutions • NGOs • Social Entrepreneurship
L32Public Enterprises • Public-Private Enterprises
L33Comparison of Public and Private Enterprises and Nonprofit Institutions • Privatization • Contracting Out
L38Public Policy
L39Other
 
L4Antitrust Issues and Policies
L40General
L41Monopolization • Horizontal Anticompetitive Practices
L42Vertical Restraints • Resale Price Maintenance • Quantity Discounts
L43Legal Monopolies and Regulation or Deregulation
L44Antitrust Policy and Public Enterprises, Nonprofit Institutions, and Professional Organizations
L49Other
 
L5Regulation and Industrial Policy
L50General
L51Economics of Regulation
L52Industrial Policy • Sectoral Planning Methods
L53Enterprise Policy
L59Other
 
L6Industry Studies: Manufacturing
L60General
L61Metals and Metal Products • Cement • Glass • Ceramics
L62Automobiles • Other Transportation Equipment • Related Parts and Equipment
L63Microelectronics • Computers • Communications Equipment
L64Other Machinery • Business Equipment • Armaments
L65Chemicals • Rubber • Drugs • Biotechnology • Plastics
L66Food • Beverages • Cosmetics • Tobacco • Wine and Spirits
L67Other Consumer Nondurables: Clothing, Textiles, Shoes, and Leather Goods; Household Goods; Sports Equipment
L68Appliances • Furniture • Other Consumer Durables
L69Other
 
L7Industry Studies: Primary Products and Construction
L70General
L71Mining, Extraction, and Refining: Hydrocarbon Fuels
L72Mining, Extraction, and Refining: Other Nonrenewable Resources
L73Forest Products
L74Construction
L78Government Policy
L79Other
 
L8Industry Studies: Services
L80General
L81Retail and Wholesale Trade • e-Commerce
L82Entertainment • Media
L83Sports • Gambling • Restaurants • Recreation • Tourism
L84Personal, Professional, and Business Services
L85Real Estate Services
L86Information and Internet Services • Computer Software
L87Postal and Delivery Services
L88Government Policy
L89Other
 
L9Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities
L90General
L91Transportation: General
L92Railroads and Other Surface Transportation
L93Air Transportation
L94Electric Utilities
L95Gas Utilities • Pipelines • Water Utilities
L96Telecommunications
L97Utilities: General
L98Government Policy
L99Other

M. Business Administration and Business Economics • Marketing • Accounting • Personnel Economics
 
M00General
 
M1Business Administration
M10General
M11Production Management
M12Personnel Management • Executives; Executive Compensation
M13New Firms • Startups
M14Corporate Culture • Diversity • Social Responsibility
M15IT Management
M16International Business Administration
M19Other
 
M2Business Economics
M20General
M21Business Economics
M29Other
 
M3Marketing and Advertising
M30General
M31Marketing
M37Advertising
M38Government Policy and Regulation
M39Other
 
M4Accounting and Auditing
M40General
M41Accounting
M42Auditing
M48Government Policy and Regulation
M49Other
 
M5Personnel Economics
M50General
M51Firm Employment Decisions • Promotions
M52Compensation and Compensation Methods and Their Effects
M53Training
M54Labor Management
M55Labor Contracting Devices
M59Other

N. Economic History
 
N00General
N01Development of the Discipline: Historiographical; Sources and Methods
 
N1Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics • Industrial Structure • Growth • Fluctuations
N10General, International, or Comparative
N11U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913
N12U.S. • Canada: 1913–
N13Europe: Pre-1913
N14Europe: 1913–
N15Asia including Middle East
N16Latin America • Caribbean
N17Africa • Oceania
 
N2Financial Markets and Institutions
N20General, International, or Comparative
N21U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913
N22U.S. • Canada: 1913–
N23Europe: Pre-1913
N24Europe: 1913–
N25Asia including Middle East
N26Latin America • Caribbean
N27Africa • Oceania
 
N3Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy
N30General, International, or Comparative
N31U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913
N32U.S. • Canada: 1913-
N33Europe: Pre-1913
N34Europe: 1913-
N35Asia including Middle East
N36Latin America • Caribbean
N37Africa • Oceania
 
N4Government, War, Law, International Relations, and Regulation
N40General, International, or Comparative
N41U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913
N42U.S. • Canada: 1913–
N43Europe: Pre-1913
N44Europe: 1913–
N45Asia including Middle East
N46Latin America • Caribbean
N47Africa • Oceania
 
N5Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment, and Extractive Industries
N50General, International, or Comparative
N51U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913
N52U.S. • Canada: 1913–
N53Europe: Pre-1913
N54Europe: 1913–
N55Asia including Middle East
N56Latin America • Caribbean
N57Africa • Oceania
 
N6Manufacturing and Construction
N60General, International, or Comparative
N61U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913
N62U.S. • Canada: 1913–
N63Europe: Pre-1913
N64Europe: 1913–
N65Asia including Middle East
N66Latin America • Caribbean
N67Africa • Oceania
 
N7Transport, Trade, Energy, Technology, and Other Services
N70General, International, or Comparative
N71U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913
N72U.S. • Canada: 1913–
N73Europe: Pre-1913
N74Europe: 1913–
N75Asia including Middle East
N76Latin America • Caribbean
N77Africa • Oceania
 
N8Micro-Business History
N80General, International, or Comparative
N81U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913
N82U.S. • Canada: 1913–
N83Europe: Pre-1913
N84Europe: 1913–
N85Asia including Middle East
N86Latin America • Caribbean
N87Africa • Oceania
 
N9Regional and Urban History
N90General, International, or Comparative
N91U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913
N92U.S. • Canada: 1913–
N93Europe: Pre-1913
N94Europe: 1913–
N95Asia including Middle East
N96Latin America • Caribbean
N97Africa • Oceania

O. Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth
 
O1Economic Development
O10General
O11Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
O12Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
O13Agriculture • Natural Resources • Energy • Environment • Other Primary Products
O14Industrialization • Manufacturing and Service Industries • Choice of Technology
O15Human Resources • Human Development • Income Distribution • Migration
O16Financial Markets • Saving and Capital Investment • Corporate Finance and Governance
O17Formal and Informal Sectors • Shadow Economy • Institutional Arrangements
O18Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis • Housing • Infrastructure
O19International Linkages to Development • Role of International Organizations
 
O2Development Planning and Policy
O20General
O21Planning Models • Planning Policy
O22Project Analysis
O23Fiscal and Monetary Policy in Development
O24Trade Policy • Factor Movement Policy • Foreign Exchange Policy
O25Industrial Policy
O29Other
 
O3Innovation • Research and Development • Technological Change • Intellectual Property Rights
O30General
O31Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
O32Management of Technological Innovation and R&D
O33Technological Change: Choices and Consequences • Diffusion Processes
O34Intellectual Property and Intellectual Capital
O35Social Innovation
O36Open Innovation
O38Government Policy
O39Other
 
O4Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity
O40General
O41One, Two, and Multisector Growth Models
O42Monetary Growth Models
O43Institutions and Growth
O44Environment and Growth
O47Empirical Studies of Economic Growth • Aggregate Productivity • Cross-Country Output Convergence
O49Other
 
O5Economywide Country Studies
O50General
O51U.S. • Canada
O52Europe
O53Asia including Middle East
O54Latin America • Caribbean
O55Africa
O56Oceania
O57Comparative Studies of Countries

P. Economic Systems
 
P00General
 
P1Capitalist Systems
P10General
P11Planning, Coordination, and Reform
P12Capitalist Enterprises
P13Cooperative Enterprises
P14Property Rights
P16Political Economy
P17Performance and Prospects
P18Energy • Environment
P19Other
 
P2Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies
P20General
P21Planning, Coordination, and Reform
P22Prices
P23Factor and Product Markets • Industry Studies • Population
P24National Income, Product, and Expenditure • Money • Inflation
P25Urban, Rural, and Regional Economics
P26Political Economy • Property Rights
P27Performance and Prospects
P28Natural Resources • Energy • Environment
P29Other
 
P3Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions
P30General
P31Socialist Enterprises and Their Transitions
P32Collectives • Communes • Agriculture
P33International Trade, Finance, Investment, Relations, and Aid
P34Financial Economics
P35Public Economics
P36Consumer Economics • Health • Education and Training • Welfare, Income, Wealth, and Poverty
P37Legal Institutions • Illegal Behavior
P39Other
 
P4Other Economic Systems
P40General
P41Planning, Coordination, and Reform
P42Productive Enterprises • Factor and Product Markets • Prices • Population
P43Public Economics • Financial Economics
P44National Income, Product, and Expenditure • Money • Inflation
P45International Trade, Finance, Investment, and Aid
P46Consumer Economics • Health • Education and Training • Welfare, Income, Wealth, and Poverty
P47Performance and Prospects
P48Political Economy • Legal Institutions • Property Rights • Natural Resources • Energy • Environment • Regional Studies
P49Other
 
P5Comparative Economic Systems
P50General
P51Comparative Analysis of Economic Systems
P52Comparative Studies of Particular Economies
P59Other

Q. Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics • Environmental and Ecological Economics
 
Q00General
Q01Sustainable Development
Q02Commodity Markets
 
Q1Agriculture
Q10General
Q11Aggregate Supply and Demand Analysis • Prices
Q12Micro Analysis of Farm Firms, Farm Households, and Farm Input Markets
Q13Agricultural Markets and Marketing • Cooperatives • Agribusiness
Q14Agricultural Finance
Q15Land Ownership and Tenure • Land Reform • Land Use • Irrigation • Agriculture and Environment
Q16R&D • Agricultural Technology • Biofuels • Agricultural Extension Services
Q17Agriculture in International Trade
Q18Agricultural Policy • Food Policy
Q19Other
 
Q2Renewable Resources and Conservation
Q20General
Q21Demand and Supply • Prices
Q22Fishery • Aquaculture
Q23Forestry
Q24Land
Q25Water
Q26Recreational Aspects of Natural Resources
Q27Issues in International Trade
Q28Government Policy
Q29Other
 
Q3Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation
Q30General
Q31Demand and Supply • Prices
Q32Exhaustible Resources and Economic Development
Q33Resource Booms
Q34Natural Resources and Domestic and International Conflicts
Q35Hydrocarbon Resources
Q37Issues in International Trade
Q38Government Policy
Q39Other
 
Q4Energy
Q40General
Q41Demand and Supply • Prices
Q42Alternative Energy Sources
Q43Energy and the Macroeconomy
Q47Energy Forecasting
Q48Government Policy
Q49Other
 
Q5Environmental Economics
Q50General
Q51Valuation of Environmental Effects
Q52Pollution Control Adoption and Costs • Distributional Effects • Employment Effects
Q53Air Pollution • Water Pollution • Noise • Hazardous Waste • Solid Waste • Recycling
Q54Climate • Natural Disasters and Their Management • Global Warming
Q55Technological Innovation
Q56Environment and Development • Environment and Trade • Sustainability • Environmental Accounts and Accounting • Environmental Equity • Population Growth
Q57Ecological Economics: Ecosystem Services • Biodiversity Conservation • Bioeconomics • Industrial Ecology
Q58Government Policy
Q59Other

R. Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics
 
R00General
 
R1General Regional Economics
R10General
R11Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes
R12Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity
R13General Equilibrium and Welfare Economic Analysis of Regional Economies
R14Land Use Patterns
R15Econometric and Input–Output Models • Other Models
R19Other
 
R2Household Analysis
R20General
R21Housing Demand
R22Other Demand
R23Regional Migration • Regional Labor Markets • Population • Neighborhood Characteristics
R28Government Policy
R29Other
 
R3Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location
R30General
R31Housing Supply and Markets
R32Other Spatial Production and Pricing Analysis
R33Nonagricultural and Nonresidential Real Estate Markets
R38Government Policy
R39Other
 
R4Transportation Economics
R40General
R41Transportation: Demand, Supply, and Congestion • Travel Time • Safety and Accidents • Transportation Noise
R42Government and Private Investment Analysis • Road Maintenance • Transportation Planning
R48Government Pricing and Policy
R49Other
 
R5Regional Government Analysis
R50General
R51Finance in Urban and Rural Economies
R52Land Use and Other Regulations
R53Public Facility Location Analysis • Public Investment and Capital Stock
R58Regional Development Planning and Policy
R59Other

Y. Miscellaneous Categories
 
Y1Data: Tables and Charts
Y10Data: Tables and Charts
 
Y2Introductory Material
Y20Introductory Material
 
Y3Book Reviews (unclassified)
Y30Book Reviews (unclassified)
 
Y4Dissertations (unclassified)
Y40Dissertations (unclassified)
 
Y5Further Reading (unclassified)
Y50Further Reading (unclassified)
 
Y6Excerpts
Y60Excerpts
 
Y7No Author General Discussions
Y70No Author General Discussions
 
Y8Related Disciplines
Y80Related Disciplines
 
Y9Other
Y90Other
Y91Pictures and Maps
Y92Novels, Self-Help Books, etc.

Z. Other Special Topics
 
Z00General
 
Z1Cultural Economics • Economic Sociology • Economic Anthropology
Z10General
Z11Economics of the Arts and Literature
Z12Religion
Z13Economic Sociology • Economic Anthropology • Language • Social and Economic Stratification
Z18Public Policy
Z19Other
 
Z2Sports Economics
Z20General
Z21Industry Studies
Z22Labor Issues
Z23Finance
Z28Policy
Z29Other
 
Z3Tourism Economics
Z30General
Z31Industry Studies
Z32Tourism and Development
Z33Marketing and Finance
Z38Policy
Z39Other


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